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What is a Battery Management System (BMS)?

A BMS will ensure the safe operation of battery cells (either individual cells or packs).

The BMS will perform any/all of the following functions:

  • Monitor/protect from Over/Under conditions (Voltage, Current, Temperature)
  • Support different limits for specific chemistries
  • (LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), LiFePO4  LiFePO4, etc)
  • Cell Balancing for battery cells/packs in series (to prolong battery life)
  • Fuel Gauge, provide State-of-Charge (SOC), State-of-Health (SOH)
  • Communicate using standard protocols (SMBus, I2C, SPI, CAN, RS485, BT, Wifi)

BMS architectures can range from simple 2V/100µA to highly complex 600V+/500A+ with design requirements ranging from simple protectors to full systematic design.

These next design examples show the increased complexity as of BMS designs as the trend for higher power continues.

Further Information: